Islam, an Arabic term meaning "submission to God's will," is a monotheistic religion that asserts the existence of a single divine being, the Creator of the universe. Muslims, the followers of Islam, believe that their faith is the ultimate revelation of God to humanity. Islam is a universal religion, applicable to anyone, anywhere, and at any time. Its central tenet is total submission to God.
Islam is a comprehensive way of life, addressing every aspect of human existence. It provides guidance on individual, social, material, moral, ethical, legal, cultural, political, economic, and global matters.
A Muslim is someone who submits their will to Allah (God) and acknowledges Prophet Muhammad as God's last and final prophet. By submitting to Allah and obeying His commandments, Muslims achieve peace. To become a Muslim, one must declare and believe in the phrase: "La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammad rasool Allah," which translates to "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger."
Allah is the name that God Almighty has given Himself, as mentioned in the Holy Quran. Muslims believe that Allah is the Originator and Sustainer of the universe and that He created human beings for the sole purpose of worshipping Him. Worshipping anything other than Allah is considered a grave sin.
The Holy Quran, revealed to Prophet Muhammad, is the last scripture from Allah for all of humanity. Muslims believe that Islam is not a new religion, but a continuation and completion of the message revealed to the Prophets of the past. The Quran, which contains 114 chapters, is believed to be the verbatim word of Allah and has remained unchanged for over 1,400 years.
Prophet Muhammad, born in Makkah in the year 570, about six centuries after Jesus, was the final Prophet of Allah. He was chosen at a time when humanity had deviated from the original message of Islam. Allah sent the archangel Gabriel to reveal the Quran to Muhammad to disseminate the correct teachings of Islam worldwide. Today, 1.6 billion people believe in this faith and are grateful to identify as Muslims.
Islam is founded on five pillars, as stated by Prophet Muhammad. These pillars are:
1. Tawheed: This is the belief in the oneness of God, known as Allah. It is the most crucial pillar of Islam. To become a Muslim, one must declare and believe in the phrase: "Laa ilaha illa Allah Muhammad Rasoolullah," which translates to "There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger." This phrase affirms that Allah alone is the Creator, Ruler, and Sustainer of all things, and He alone deserves our worship.
2. Salah: This is the practice of prayer, which is the second most important pillar in Islam. Muslims are required to perform five obligatory prayers each day: Fajr (early morning, before dawn), Duhr (mid-day, just after noon), 'Asr (mid afternoon), Maghrib (just after sunset), and Isha (at night, after dark has fallen). These prayers serve as a link between a person and Allah.
3. Zakat: This is the act of giving a specific portion of one's wealth to those in need. Zakat, which means "that which purifies," is considered a way for Muslims to purify their wealth and income. It is obligatory for Muslims who have reached puberty, are mentally stable, and are financially capable.
4. Fasting during Ramadan: This is the practice of abstaining from eating, drinking, and sexual activities from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is obligatory for every sane, adult Muslim, and it serves to strengthen faith, piety, and God consciousness.
5. Hajj: This is the pilgrimage to Makkah, the Sacred House of Allah. It is required for every Muslim to perform at least once in their lifetime if they are physically and financially capable. The reward for performing Hajj is great, with the Prophet Muhammad stating that those who perform Hajj seeking Allah's pleasure will return free from all sins.
Islam's faith is based on six pillars, as taught by Prophet Muhammad. These pillars are:
1. Belief in Allah: This is the belief in the oneness of God, known as Allah. It is the most fundamental aspect of Islam. Muslims believe that Allah is the only Creator, Sustainer, King, and Planner of everything in existence. They believe that all of mankind was created to worship Allah alone and that anything else that is worshipped other than Him is falsely worshipped.
2. Belief in the Angels: Angels are unseen beings created by Allah. They obey Allah's commands and never transgress His laws. Some angels have specific duties, such as Jibreel (Gabriel), who delivers revelations to the messengers, and Malik, who is entrusted with Hell. Every human being has two angels who record all of their deeds, good or bad.
3. Belief in the Revealed Scriptures: Muslims believe in all the books that were revealed to the messengers. These include the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms (Zaboor), the scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham), and the Qur’an. These scriptures were revealed to guide mankind and confirm the revelations that came before them.
4. Belief in the Messengers: Muslims believe in all the messengers that were sent by Allah. Among them are 25 messengers mentioned by name in the Qur’an, including Adam, Nooh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Moosa (Moses), 'Isa (Jesus), and Muhammad. These messengers were chosen by Allah to guide people to worship Him alone.
5. Belief in the Last Day: The Day of Judgment is when Allah judges mankind for their deeds. Every human being will be resurrected from their graves and will be given their book of deeds – both good and bad. Believing in the Last Day includes belief in the punishment and bliss of the grave, belief in the resurrection, belief in the judgment of the scales which will balance your deeds, and belief in Paradise and Hell.
6. Belief in Divine Decree (Al-Qadar): This is the belief that everything that happens, good or bad, happens only according to Allah’s divine decree. It is to believe that Allah decrees for every single creation based on His Knowledge and Wisdom.
The Life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH
This chapter provides a brief overview of the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), from his birth to his passing. It's important to note that this summary cannot fully encapsulate his life and legacy.
Born in Makkah in 570 AD, Muhammad (peace be upon him) was orphaned at a young age. His father passed away before his birth, and his mother died when he was six. His grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, took him in, but he too passed away when Muhammad was eight. His uncle, Abu Talib, then raised him.
Muhammad (peace be upon him) was known for his integrity and good character, earning him the title al-Ameen (the trustworthy). He worked as a shepherd and later as a merchant for a woman named Khadija, who was impressed by his honesty and sincerity. They eventually married when Muhammad was 25.
At the age of 40, Muhammad (peace be upon him) received his first revelation from the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) in the cave of Hira. This marked the beginning of his prophethood. His wife Khadija was the first to accept Islam.
During his time in Makkah, he faced persecution from the Quraysh tribe. Despite this, Islam continued to grow. After 13 years, the Muslims migrated to Madinah, marking the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
In Madinah, Muhammad (peace be upon him) continued to spread Islam, and the community of Muslims grew. They faced several battles, but eventually, they were able to return to Makkah. Muhammad (peace be upon him) forgave the people of Makkah who had oppressed the Muslims, demonstrating his noble character.
In the 10th year after the migration, Muhammad (peace be upon him) performed Hajj and delivered his final sermon, emphasizing the importance of justice, equality, and good treatment of women. He passed away at the age of 63.
The legacy of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) continues to inspire Muslims around the world today.
The Journey to the Afterlife
The journey to the afterlife, as understood in Islam, is divided into four stages: the moment of death, life in the grave, the Day of Judgment, and eternal life.
Death is an inevitable part of life, a fact that is often overlooked. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) encouraged us to reflect on death frequently. The Quran, Islam's holy book, also emphasizes the certainty of death and urges us to prepare for it.
Following death, the soul enters the grave. According to Islamic belief, two angels will visit the soul and ask three critical questions: "Who is your Lord? What is your religion? Who is this man who was sent among you?" A righteous soul will answer correctly, while a sinful soul will fail to respond. The soul's fate in the grave will be determined by its answers.
The Day of Judgment, also known as the Day of Recompense or the Day of Rising, is a significant event in the afterlife journey. The exact time of this event is known only to Allah. On this day, all of humanity, from the first to the last generation, will be gathered for judgment. Each person's deeds will be accounted for and judged by Allah.
After the judgment, people will be divided into two groups: those who will enter Paradise and those who will enter Hell. This division marks the beginning of eternal life. The dwellers of Hell will face severe punishment, while the dwellers of Paradise will enjoy endless pleasures and rewards. The Quran and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) provide vivid descriptions of both Paradise and Hell.
In conclusion, the journey to the afterlife is a significant aspect of Islamic belief. It serves as a reminder of the transient nature of this world and the eternal consequences of our actions.